Yu J, Mu Q, Perazzolo S, Griffin JI, Zhu L, McConnachie LA, Shen DD, Ho RJ. Novel Long-Acting Drug Combination Nanoparticles Composed of Gemcitabine and Paclitaxel Enhance Localization of Both Drugs in Metastatic Breast Cancer Nodules. Pharm Res. 2020 Sep 23;37(10):197. doi: 10.1007/s11095-020-02888-8. PMID: 32968837.
Purpose: To develop drug-combination nanoparticles (DcNPs) composed of hydrophilic gemcitabine (G) and hydrophobic paclitaxel (T) and deliver both drugs to metastatic cancer cells.
Methods: GT DcNPs were evaluated based on particle size and drug association efficiency (AE%). The effect of DcNP on GT plasma time-course and tissue distribution was characterized in mice and a pharmacokinetic model was developed. A GT distribution study into cancer nodules (derived from 4 T1 cells) was performed.
Results: An optimized GT DcNP composition (d = 59.2 nm ±9.2 nm) was found to be suitable for IV formulation. Plasma exposure of G and T were enhanced 61-fold and 3.8-fold when given in DcNP form compared to the conventional formulation, respectively. Mechanism based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation show that both G and T remain highly associated to DcNPs in vivo (G: 98%, T:75%). GT DcNPs have minimal distribution to healthy organs with selective distribution and retention in tumor burdened tissue. Tumor bearing lungs had a 5-fold higher tissue-to-plasma ratio of gemcitabine in GT DcNPs compared to healthy lungs.
Conclusions: DcNPs can deliver hydrophilic G and hydrophobic T together to cancer nodules and produce long acting exposure, likely due to stable GT association to DcNPs in vivo.