Recent Publications

Be informed about the latest research and clinical studies being done in long-acting, extended release drugs for HIV and TB.

Long-acting or extended-release antiretroviral products for HIV treatment and prevention in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women: knowledge gaps and research priorities.

Date Posted: 
Aug 9, 2019
Author(s): 
Nachman S, Townsend CL, Abrams EJ, et al.
Citation(s): 
Lancet HIV. 2019 Aug;6(8):e552-e558. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(19)30147-X. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Antiretroviral agents with long-acting properties have potential to improve treatment outcomes substantially for people living with HIV. In November 2017, the Long acting/Extended Release Antiretroviral Resource Program (LEAP) convened a workshop with the aim of shaping the research agenda and promoting early development of long-acting or extended release products for key populations: pregnant and lactating women, children aged up to 10 years, and adolescents aged 10-19 years.

Structural and pharmacological evaluation of a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor as a promising long acting nanoformulation for treating HIV

Date Posted: 
Apr 30, 2019
Author(s): 
Kudalkar SN, Ullah I, Bertoletti N, et al.
Citation(s): 
Antiviral Res. 2019 Apr 26. pii: S0166-3542(19)30183-4. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2019.04.010. [Epub ahead of print]

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been proven effective in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and has significantly improved the health outcomes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The therapeutic benefits of cART have been challenged because of the toxicity and emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains along with lifelong patient compliance resulting in non-adherence.

Semi-solid prodrug nanoparticles for long-acting delivery of water-soluble antiretroviral drugs within combination HIV therapies

Date Posted: 
Apr 1, 2019
Author(s): 
Hobson JJ, Al-khouja A, Curley P, et al.
Citation(s): 
Nature Communications, volume 10, Article number: 1413 (2019)

The increasing global prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is estimated at 36.7 million people currently infected. Lifelong antiretroviral (ARV) drug combination dosing allows management as a chronic condition by suppressing circulating viral load to allow for a near-normal life; however, the daily burden of oral administration may lead to non-adherence and drug resistance development.

The Invisible Product: Preferences for Sustained-Release, Long-Acting Pre-exposure Prophylaxis to HIV Among South African Youth

Date Posted: 
Mar 14, 2019
Author(s): 
Montgomery ET, Atujuna M, Krogstad E, et al.
Citation(s): 
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Apr 15;80(5):542-550. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001960. PMID: 30865050 [PubMed - in process]


Long-acting injectable and implantable approaches aim to overcome some of the documented challenges with uptake and adherence to current HIV prevention methods. Youth are a key end-user population for these methods. We used qualitative methods to examine product attributes and preferences for current and future long-acting HIV prevention approaches.

Ultra-long-acting removable drug delivery system for HIV treatment and prevention

Date Posted: 
Feb 13, 2019
Author(s): 
Martina Kovarova, S. Rahima Benhabbour, Ivana Massud, et al.
Citation(s): 
Nature Communicationsvolume 9, Article number: 4156 (2018)


Non-adherence to medication is an important health care problem, especially in the treatment of chronic conditions. Injectable long-acting (LA) formulations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) represent a viable alternative to improve adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. However, the LA-ARV formulations currently in clinical trials cannot be removed after administration even if adverse events occur. Here we show an ultra-LA removable system that delivers drug for up to 9 months and can be safely removed to stop drug delivery.

Nanoencapsulation introduces long-acting phenomenon to tenofovir alafenamide and emtricitabine drug combination: A comparative pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy study against HIV-1 vaginal transmission

Date Posted: 
Jan 28, 2019
Author(s): 
Mandal S, Kang G, Prathipati PK. et al.
Citation(s): 
J Control Release. 2019 Jan 28;294:216-225. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.12.027. Epub 2018 Dec 18.


Daily oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven efficacy for diverse groups of high-risk individuals. However, daily dosing regimen has augmented non-adherence. These experiments comparatively investigated the long-acting (LA) PrEP potency of subcutaneous (SubQ) administrated tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and emtricitabine (FTC) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) to solution in humanized (hu) mice.

Predicting drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and long-acting cabotegravir and rilpivirine using PBPK modelling

Date Posted: 
Dec 19, 2018
Author(s): 
Rajoli RKR, Curley P, Chiong J, et al.
Citation(s): 
J Infect Dis. 2018 Dec 19. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy726. [Epub ahead of print]


Cabotegravir and rilpivirine are two long-acting (LA) ARVs that can be administered intramuscularly (IM); their interaction with rifampicin, a first-line anti-TB agent, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict DDIs between these LA ARV agents and rifampicin using PBPK modelling.

Ultra-long-acting removable drug delivery system for HIV treatment and prevention

Date Posted: 
Nov 12, 2018
Author(s): 
Kovarova M, Benhabbour SR, Massud I. et al.
Citation(s): 
Nat Commun. 2018 Oct 8;9(1):4156. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06490-w.
Resource Subcategory: 

Non-adherence to medication is an important health care problem, especially in the treatment of chronic conditions. Injectable long-acting (LA) formulations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) represent a viable alternative to improve adherence to HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention. However, the LA-ARV formulations currently in clinical trials cannot be removed after administration even if adverse events occur. Here we show an ultra-LA removable system that delivers drug for up to 9 months and can be safely removed to stop drug delivery. 

Extended-Duration MK-8591-Eluting Implant as a Candidate for HIV Treatment and Prevention

Date Posted: 
Oct 1, 2018
Author(s): 
Barrett S.E., Teller R. S., Forster S. P, et al.
Citation(s): 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Sep 24;62(10)
Resource Subcategory: 

Regimen adherence remains a major hurdle to the success of daily oral drug regimens for the treatment and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Long-acting drug formulations requiring less-frequent dosing offer an opportunity to improve adherence and allow for more forgiving options with regard to missed doses. The administration of long-acting formulations in a clinical setting enables health care providers to directly track adherence.

Modelling the long-acting administration of anti-tuberculosis agents using PBPK: a proof of concept study

Date Posted: 
Aug 17, 2018
Author(s): 
Rajoli, R. K. R. Podany, A. T. Moss, D. M. et al.
Citation(s): 
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Aug 1;22(8):937-944


SETTING: Anti-tuberculosis formulations necessitate uninterrupted treatment to cure tuberculosis (TB), but are characterised by suboptimal adherence, which jeopardises therapeutic efficacy. Long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations or implants could address these associated issues.

OBJECTIVE: niazid, rifapentine, bedaquiline and delamanid—in adults for treatment for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI).

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